Like other EU countries, Spain is implementing a wider range of criminal sanctions for corporate misdeeds, including "environmental" crimes.  This NLJ article provides a broad overview.  For some deeper background, see this 2002  Maastricht summary of criminal law in Europe with respect  to environmental issues. Environmental justice also is a growing topic for legal education, as described here. The T.M.C. Asser  Institute includes this network focused on environmental law. Given the sometimes enormous consequences of pollution, it”s good to see more countries creating risk and sanctions for companies that fail to act responsibly.